We co-presented a workshop with CIHI at this conference held by the Association of Canadian Studies. And it turned out, measuring inclusion is difficult, even the evaluators say this! Measuring identity is even harder. Who gets to say that person is First Nations? Who gets to say what the indicators of being Métis really are? Do you have to speak the language fluently to be accepted as Inuk? All very difficult questions. No such thing as a simple answer, because culture and identity are closely linked.